IP address

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Policy address Specifies the location of the computer (or, more specifically, its network interface) on the Internet.

Has length 4 bytes and consists of two parts-network and machine. Network refers to the logical network to which the address and the machine identifies a specific computer on the network. Under the agreement, IP addresses are written as four decimal numbers (one for each byte), separated by periods. For the separation of network and machine parts used the network mask, and the components of the address may be divided on the border of the individual bits, and not necessarily bytes. Sometimes the number of bits in the network section for the sake of brevity, indicate a fraction after the IP address.

Historically, IP addresses are grouped in classes defined by the first bit of the first byte. Classes differ in the distribution network and byte addresses between the machine parts. Class A: 1-126-earliest network Governing United States defence. Class B: 128-191-large organizations, addresses this class has almost completely been busy. Class C: 192-223-small organizations address this Claes stand out at this time.

In order to save the address space reserved addresses for private use, i.e., computers that have no direct connection to the Internet, but connected to the local networks of the various organizations. Single class A network ID 10.0.0.0/24 8-, 16 class B network 172.16.0.0/12 and 256 class C networks-192.168.0.0/16. These addresses are globally, and should be used by organizations for their local networks and data packets with these addresses must be filtered by the router connecting the Internet to the local network. Hosts with private addresses to have access to the Internet, the router uses NAT system.

Allocation of IP addresses among regional providers in Europe is RIPE, which these powers are delegated by ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers).

Because IP addresses are long numbers, remember and uses the text in the Internet domain names that are associated with IP addresses through DNS.


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